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He was the elder brother of Dawood Ibrahimthe current gang leader of the D-Company. The rise of Sabir and Dawood in Mumbai's underworld and the sympathetic attitude of the Mumbai police towards them evoked the jealousy and resentment of from the Pathan gang that dominated South Mumbai area. Finally, the inter-gang rivalry grew to such an extent that the Pathan gang leader Samad Khan and his trusted cronies Amirzada and Alamzeb plotted to kill Sabir and Dawood. On 12 Februarythey shot dead Sabir at a petrol pump in Prabhadevi in central Mumbai.
The murder of Sabir was an important chapter in Mumbai's underworld as it unleashed a gruesome gang war between Dawood Ibrahim gang- D Company and the Pathan gang leading to a spate of shootouts. Amirzada Alamzeb and Samad were eliminated one by one by gangsters financed by Dawood and eventually the Pathan gang's dominance was replaced by the Dawood Ibrahim gang. He lived in Temkar mohalla in Dongri in South Mumbai.
The family had eight children and was perennially impoverished. Sabir and his younger brother, Dawood were school dropouts and often spent their days wandering on the streets of Dongri and Bhendi Bazar. In those days, people in those areas lived in fear and awe of Karim Lalathe leader of the Pathan gang and Haji Mastanthe smuggler who enjoyed a cult following among the impoverished Muslim youths in south Mumbai including Sabir and Dawood.
Soon Sabir and Dawood joined in the petty street crime of selling smuggled electronics goods and watches.समद खान- करीम लाला का बिगड़ा नवाब - Samad Khan- Unheard King Of Mumbai
They often cheated gullible travelers and got involved in street brawls. Sabir, Dawood, and their friends would hang out near Crawford Market in search of gullible travelers and offer them smuggled Rolex watches for a measly price compared to the actual cost.
After the buyer paid them in cash, they would pretend to wrap the watch in a small paper or cloth and tell the buyer not to open it to avoid police suspicion. It would be a stone instead of the watch. They called this activity "Adla-Badli" switch and bait.Simple lego instructions
If the buyer found out that he had been cheated and accosted them, they would intimidate him with the help of burly Pathan hoodlums from the neighborhood. They also did odd jobs for Haji Mastan and Karim Lala gangs like collecting protection money "hafta vasuli" from shopkeepers, offloading smuggled goods and transporting them from one place to another.
In DecemberDawood Ibrahim and his ragtag gang of friends robbed Rs. Later they realized that the cash actually belonged to the Metropolitan Bank in Bombay. Dawood and Sabir became rich gangsters overnight but incurred the wrath of the Pathan gang leader- Samad Khan, the eccentric nephew of Karim Lala for daring to rob in his territory. When Emergency was declared in India between tomost gangsters including Haji Mastan and Karim Lala were either jailed or went into hiding.
Dawood and Sabir took advantage of the power vacuum and started managing the smuggling business of Haji Mastan on his behalf. ByDawood and Sabir had become as rich and influential as the Pathan gang.Rajan Mahadev Nair  died 21 Septemberpopularly known in the Mumbai underworld by his moniker Bada Rajan literally Elder Rajan was an Indian mobster and underworld don from Mumbaiwho operated a gang active in Mumbai's eastern suburbs of Ghatkopar, Tilak Nagar and Chembur.
On 21 Septemberhe was shot dead by the Pathan gang because he had helped Dawood Ibrahim by instructing a gang member David Pardeshi to shoot dead Amirzada from the Pathan gang.
Rajan Nair lived in a slum in Ghatkopar in the east Mumbai. He worked in a small factory in Thane. With mounting expenses and greed for excess money and to get the attention of love of his life, he got into the habit of stealing branded typewriters and selling them in Chor Bazaar.
Once he was accidentally arrested by a police team in search of another criminal and served imprisonment. When he was released, he took to full time crime in Ghatkopar, especially black marketing of cinema tickets, spurious liquor and extortion from shop keepers. After a few years, a band of daring youngsters from neighbouring Tilak Nagar were released from jail. They were imprisoned on the charges of cinema ticket black marketing and beating up the police who tried to stop them.
That group was led by Rajendra Nikalje alias Chhota Rajan. They soon took over most of the crime in Mumbai's eastern suburbs of Ghatkopar, Pantnagar, Chembur and Tilaknagar. The early eighties saw a tectonic shift of power in the Mumbai underworld. Haji Mastan had virtually stopped his smuggling activities and Karim Lala was focusing more on his hotel business. The vicious Pathan gang started by Karim Lala was weakened by a split between his nephew Samad Khan on one side and Dawood Ibrahim on the other.
The third don, Varadarajan Mudaliar from Dharavi moved in to extend his hold over north-east Mumbai. Dawood plotted revenge. He offered a big supari contract for killing to kill Amirzada but nobody came forward. Bada Rajan saw his chance to rise in the underworld and accepted the supari. He had one of his junior gang member- an unemployed youth David Pardeshi shoot down Amirzada in the Mumbai sessions court on 6 September Malayali don Abdul Kunju had a bitter and long standing enmity with Bada Rajan.
It all started when Bada Rajan sent his men to assault some youth in Shell Colony, Chembur, for harassing a woman typist. This incident developed into a deadly rivalry with Kunju. Aware of Rajan's enormous power in the areas between Ghatkopar and Matunga, Kunju realised that he could not fight the Rajan gang on his own.
Therefore, he allied himself with Bada Rajan's rival, Philip Pandhare. Pandhare's gang was further strengthened when Vijay Sawant and Francis Xavier, also known as "Shorty", from Pestom Sagar enlisted with them. Kunju's neighbour, an autorickshaw driver named Chandrashekar Safalika, who was looking to make Rs. He was introduced to hotelier, Mahesh Dholakia at Caesar Palace. Dholakia offered around Rs. Safalika left with only Rs. The next day, Kunju provided Safalika with a revolver, and converted an isolated spot near Vikhroli Park site into a firing range.
Rise of the ’83 ‘encounter’ batch
In a daring operation, Safalika dressed as a naval cadet with his gun hidden in the cavity of a thick book, stalked Bada Rajan outside the Esplanade court and shot him dead.They primarily live in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
A substantial majority of ethnic Pashtuns share Pashto —an Eastern Iranic language in the Indo-European language family—as the native language. The majority of the Pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistanwhich has been split between two countries since the Durand Line border was formed after the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
Smaller, but still significant Pashtun diaspora communities exist in Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan, especially in the cities of Karachi and Lahoreand in the Rohilkhand region of Uttar PradeshIndia. As the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan anywhere between 42 and 60 percent of the populationPashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over years. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the 15th—16th century Lodi dynasty briefly replaced the preexisting rulers in North India until Babur completely deposed the Lodi dynasty.
Other Pashtuns fought the Safavids and Mughals before obtaining an independent state in the early 18th century,  which began with a successful revolution by Mirwais Hotak followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani. The Pashtuns are the world's largest segmentary lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about to over The vast majority of the Pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun homelandlocated in an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, which includes Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern part of Balochistan.
There are also sizeable Muslim communities in India, which are of largely Pashtun ancestry. In Pakistan, the city of Karachi in Sindh province has the largest Pashtun diaspora communities in the world, with as much as 7 million Pashtuns living in Karachi according to some estimates.
Another one million or more Afghans live in Iran. A prominent institution of the Pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes. The Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, Peshawar, Quetta and Kabul have grown rapidly due to the influx of rural Pashtuns.
Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans. The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabaris divided into kinship groups called khelsin turn divided into smaller groups pllarina or plarganeyeach consisting of several extended families called kahols.
Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50, years ago. In recent times, people of the Western world have explored the area as well.
Shabir Ibrahim Kaskar
The early precursors to modern-day Pashtuns may have been old Iranian tribes that spread throughout the eastern Iranian plateau. Gankovsky, the Pashtun's probably began as a "union of largely East-Iranian tribes which became the initial ethnic stratum of the Pashtun ethnogenesis, dates from the middle of the first millennium CE and is connected with the dissolution of the Epthalites White Huns confederacy.
According to Abdul Hai Habibisome oriental scholars hold that the second largest Pasthun tribe, the Ghiljisare the descendants of a mixed race of Hephthalite and Pakhtas who have been living in Afghanistan since the Vedic Aryan period.
The Pashtuns began as a union of largely East-Iranian tribes which became the initial ethnic stratum of the Pashtun ethnogenesisdates from the middle of the first millennium CE and is connected with the dissolution of the Epthalite White Huns confederacy. Of the contribution of the Epthalites White Huns to the ethnogenesis of the Pashtuns we find evidence in the ethnonym of the largest of the Pashtun tribe unions, the Abdali Durrani after associated with the ethnic name of the Epthalites — Abdal.
The Siah-poshthe Kafirs Nuristanis of the Hindu Kushcalled all Pashtuns by a general name of Abdal still at the beginning of the 19th century. The ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas Pactyans between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC,   who may be their early ancestors, however, such a claim lacks substantial evidence.
There are many conflicting theories, some modern and others archaic, both among historians and the Pashtuns themselves. Is there one specific beginning? And are the Pashtuns originally identical with the Afghans? Although the Pashtuns nowadays constitute a clear ethnic group with their own language and culture, there is no evidence whatsoever that all modern Pashtuns share the same ethnic origin. In fact it is highly unlikely. Pashtuns are intimately tied to the history of modern Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and northern India.
Following Muslim conquests from the 7th to 11th centuries, many Pashtun ghazis warriors invaded and conquered much of the northern parts of South Asia during the periods of the Suris and Durranis.Underworld gangs in Mumbai acquired sophisticated firearms in the early s, forcing the police to respond to their shootouts in public places and their extortion activities and threats by staging encounters.
In the s, the activities of these gangs had revolved around smuggling and the distribution and sale of illicit liquor. Initially, those who provided protection carried Rampuris knivesdaggers or swords. The chief reason for this conflict was the smuggling of a new item: heroin. The gang war The first victim of their rivalry, late inwas a journalist with an Urdu daily, Iqbal Natiq.
The batch Julio Ribeiro, who took over as Mumbai police commissioner inadvocated a tough policy against gangland, and Manya Surve became the first gangster to be shot in a police encounter in The encounter policy was not only not questioned at the time, it was warmly welcomed as a necessary step in breaking the back of the underworld. A new crop of police officers recruited in were witness to these developments. However, Shankar Kamble, former assistant commissioner of police, crime branch, said the batch rose to prominence because it comprised some of the best detection officers.
Besides, officers such as Salaskar, Sharma, Bhosle and Angre got early postings in sensitive branches and police stations, which helped them develop informer networks and made them good at collating intelligence. That they were ahead of others in operational excellence or intelligence-gathering was the result of this experience, sources said. The transformation made the Mumbai police initiate a crackdown on the underworld in the early 90s.
The first major encounter in the s, the decade which saw the maximum number of encounters, led to the death of Mahindra Dolas alias Maya Dolas, a trusted Dawood aide. The then additional commissioner of police west regionAA Khan, ambushed a flat in Lokhandwala Complex in Andheri W in which Dolas and his four associates were holed up and shot all of them.
After Chhota Rajan split with Dawood and formed his own gang, the problem became more acute. Given the go-ahead, encounter specialists spread across various crime branch units across the city. While a particular unit went after the Dawood-Shakeel gang, another went after Arun Gawli and yet another after a third gang.
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His death was as bloody as his life. Early one morning, last fortnight, as Bombay's sinister "killer for hire" Samad Khan stepped out of the lift in a building in south Bombay with three companions, he was riddled by over 20 bullets. The killers - members of the rival gang of Dawood Ibrahim - fled from the scene in three waiting cars. Khan's death came as but a grisly climax to a mounting gang warfare between two rival groups who in the past have stopped at nothing. The year-old scion of the underworld, Khan was notorious both for his brazen behaviour as a hired hit man and extortionist as well as for his well-known family ties with underworld boss Karim Lala.
Though once considered Lala's heir apparent, Lala had ironically enough, only three days before his nephew' s death, inserted a notice in a daily newspaper stating that his name was being unnecessarily connected with the alleged activities of his brother's son and he would file a defamation suit against anyone who continued to do so.
Lala who runs the Jirgah-e-Hind organisation described himself as a "peace-loving citizen leading a comparatively retired life". Nevertheless Lala was chief mourner at Khan's funeral which was attended by over 2, people including personalities like Muslim League MP G.
Banatwala and film star Dilip Kumar's brother Ahsan Khan. Khan was certainly no cheap hit man. His price was a reported Rs 1.
But Khan was considered too volatile, too trigger-happy and often too indiscreet for his own good.
Police records reveal that he was connected with at least 10 killings, the last being on September 17 when he fired two rounds from a moving car at a man named Iqbal who was sitting on the bonnet of another car. A month earlier he shot a passport agent at Santa Cruz. Last December, he was arrested for the murder of Texmaco senior executive S. Jain at the Sea Rock Hotel. Inhe was accused of killing a man while trying to get him to sign a flat sale deal.
Then, last year, in August, he escaped from his police escort in the compound of the city civil court and sped away with his girl-friend Shilpa Jhaveri whom he later married. But his most outrageous act yet was in May last year when he was in the Central Jail in Bombay. He got his henchmen to bring two potential witnesses against him to jail and proceeded to shave off their heads in patches with gruesome delight. Yet, despite everything, Khan always managed to stay out of jail.
The police for their part refuse to shoulder the blame for such hardened criminals being out on the streets unchecked. Police Commissioner Julio Ribeiro points out that Khan was in fact twice detained under NSA but managed to be freed by the advisory board.
Mafia hit man Samad Khan shot dead by members of rival Dawood Ibrahim gang
He also managed to obtain bail in half-a-dozen murder cases for which he was arrested. Samad Khan was merely the latest victim in the Mafia-like vendetta war between Bombay's two leading underworld gangs: the Pathan Amirzada Alamzeb group and the gang led by Dawood Ibrahim.
The Pathan gang is involved in drug smuggling along the Pakistan border while the Ibrahim gang concentrates on smuggling along the Gujarat coastline. Though close friends at one time, the two fell out over the slaying of a restaurant owner friend of Ibrahim. The resultant feud has become so bitter that the usual gangster code of honour that disallows killing their own has been disregarded, it appears from recent happenings, with brutal impunity.
Dawood's brother Ibrahim was gunned down at a petrol pump in Prabhadevi in In September last year, Amirzada himself was shot dead in a crowded courtroom by David Pardeshi dressed in a naval ratings uniform. Just five days after Samad Khan's death, David Pardeshi escaped from the Arthur Road jail in a manner truly reminiscent of movie land tradition.Frank Hoogerbeets, who is based in the Netherlands, has been ridiculed for his claims which he says uses planetary alignments to work out when seismic activity on Earth will increase.
His "non-scientific" system is rubbished by mainstream geologists, but he claims he is slowly proving there is something in his theory which says the alignments of planets can create a gravitational pull on our world, causing tremors to strike. He provided a link to a YouTube video he uploaded on November 8, and later Facebook and Twitter warnings he issued hours before the earthquake.
Even Iran was mentioned as a possible location for a six to seven magnitude earthquake. Just hours before the Iran-Iraq quake, he posted on Facebook and Twitter: "Be on watch: larger quakes may be upcoming in the next few days. He said: "We are not out of the woods for sure, we may have another six pointer, possibly a big six or maybe another seven.
Seven major earthquakes, that is really below average. Critics say that because Mr Hoogerbeets gives warnings over a timeframe of a number of days, and issues warnings for several areas each time, across the globe, occasionally he will seem to predict such events. He points to several examples where he says he was right, amid claims his accuracy is improving. There have been significant quakes after some of his warnings, but he is no longer specific about where they will strike or the exact day.
In December 2015 he was mocked after predicting a powerful magnitude eight earthquake that could "change the world forever" would strike on the 11 or 12 of the month, only for it to fail to materialise. There was also the much publicised mega quake he warned was about to hit California in May 2015 - but it too never arrived.
Volunteer rescue workers wait in the rain near a collapsed building for a chance to help in the search for survivors in Mexico CityMr Hoogerbeets admits he also relies on messages from spirits, crop circle formations, and so-called "key Earth dates" in order to predict when earthquakes will strike. Astronomer Phil Plait, who writes for New Scientist, previously said of his predictions: "Let me be clear: No, it won't.
Mystery cross in sky seen as 'message from God' 'GOD'S MESSENGER' Rocky Mountains 'recluse' claims to be prophet - with new announcement UFO cube that appeared 'through portal' over US nuclear test base was REAL, claims expert googletag.
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We obtain predictive densities from a stae-of-the-art stochastic volatility (SV) model, which we then tilt towards the second moment of the risk-neutral distribution implied by options prices, while imposing a non-negativity constraint on the equity premium. By combining the backward-looking information contained in the SV model with the forward-looking information from options prices, our procedure delivers sharper predictive densities.
Using density forecasts of the U. Series data maintained by Leslie Yancich (Obfuscate( 'brandeis. Is your work missing from RePEc. Here is how to contribute. Check the EconPapers FAQ or send mail to Obfuscate( 'oru. EconPapers Home About EconPapers Working Papers Journal Articles Books and Chapters Software Components Authors JEL codes New Economics Papers Advanced Search EconPapers FAQ Archive maintainers FAQ Cookies at EconPapers Format for printing The RePEc blog The RePEc plagiarism page Option-Implied Equity Premium Predictions via Entropic TiltinG Davide Pettenuzzo (Obfuscate( 'brandeis.
Page updated 2017-12-05 Handle: RePEc:brd:wpaper:99r. Economists have suggested a whole range of variables that investors could or should use to predict: dividend price ratios, dividend yields, earnings-price ratios, dividend payout ratios, net issuing ratios, book-market ratios, interest rates (in various guises), and consumption-based macroeconomic ratios (cay).
Most would have outright hurt. Therefore, we find that, for all practical purposes, the equity premium has not been predictable, and any belief about whether the stock market is now too high or too low has to be based on theoretical prior, not on the empirically variables we have explored.
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